15011576 
Gerolamo Cardano. Born 24 September 1501 Pavia, Died 21 September 1576 (aged 74) Italy. “Algebra. ﬁrst systematic use of negative numbers. published with attribution the solutions of other mathematicians for the cubic and quartic equations, and acknowledged the existence of imaginary numbers.” 

15501617 
John Napier. discovered logarithms. Use of decimal point. 

15641642 
Galileo Galilei. Born 15 February 1564, Pisa, Duchy of Florence. Died 8 January 1642 (aged 77) Arcetri. Pendulum, Gravity, astronomy. 

15841667 
Gregory St. Vincent. Born: March 22, 1584, Bruges, Belgium, June 5, 1667, Ghent, Belgium. Publishes in 1647 Opus geometricum quadrature ciculi et sectionum coni. First use of method of exhaustion in geometry. First use of method of chords to transform one conic to another. First use of geometric series. First to settle Zeno’s Achilles paradox. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gr%C3%A9goire_de_SaintVincent 

15961650 
René Descartes. Born: March 31, 1596, France, Died: Feb. 11, 1650, Stockholm, Sweden. Wrote Descartes Meditations on First Philosophy (1641). 

16071665 
Pierre de Fermat. Born: 1607, BeaumontdeLomagne, France, Died: Jan. 12, 1665, Castres, France. Important contributions to analytical geometry, probability, number theory and calculus. 

16161703 
John Wallis. Publishes Arithmetica inﬁnitorum in 1655. Created the arithmetical concept of limit. First to use the symbol \(\infty \). First to use the term hypergeometric series in his 1655 book Arithmetica Inﬁnitorum. 

16231662 
Blaise Pascal. Born: June 19, 1623, ClermontFerrand, France. Died: August 19, 1662, Paris, France. projective geometry. Corresponded with Pierre de Fermat on probability theory. 

16251686 
Pietro Mengoli. Alternative proof that harmonic series diverges. posed the famous Basel problem, Solved by Euler in 1735. In 1650 proved that the sum of the alternating harmonic series is equal to the natural logarithm of 2. 

16291695 
Christiaan Huygens. One of his famous works is De horologio oscillatorio published in Paris in 1673. Invented pendulum clock. Wrote the ﬁrst formal book on probability. Proposed the wave theory of light. Publication of his Opuscula posthuma in 1703 after his death. 

16301677 
Isaac Barrow. Professor of Mathematics in London and Cambridge. Famous for method of tangents. Publishes Lectiones geometrica (1670) and Lectiones mathematica (1683). 

16381675 
James Gregory. Born in Drumoak, United Kingdom. Scottish mathematician. Taylor series. Died in Edinburgh, United Kingdom. 

16431727 
Isaac Newton. Born in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England. 

16461716 
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Born in Leipzig, Germany. 

16461716 
Michel Rolle. Born 21 April 1652, Died 8 November 1719 (aged 67) Paris, Kingdom of France French mathematician. Rolle’s theorem (1691). Apparently he also knew about Gaussian elimination. 

16551705 
Jacob Bernoulli. Born in Basel, Switzerland. 

16671754 
Abraham de Moivre. French mathematician known for de Moivre’s formula. worked on the normal distribution and probability theory. Was Friend of Newton. 

16671748 
Johann Bernoulli. Born in Basel, Switzerland. 

16761754 
Jacopo Francesco Riccati. Born 28 May 1676 Venice, Italy, Died 15 April 1754 Italy(aged 77). Named for the Riccati ODE 

1669 
Isaac Newton becomes Chair of Mathematics in Cambridge when Isaac Barrow vacates this position for Newton. 

1669 
Isaac Newton. Writes major Work on Calculus. "De analysi" or "On Analysis by Equations with an inﬁnite number of terms". First time the series for \(\sin (x)\) and \(\cos (x)\) derived. Also gives Quadrature rules for ﬁrst time. This work was actually published in 1711. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_analysi_per_aequationes_numero_terminorum_infinitas 

1671 
James Gregory. Finds power series for \(\arctan (x)\) 

June 13, 1676 
Newton sends famous letter to H. Oldenburg, containing ﬁrst announcement of binomial theorem using negative and fractional exponents. http://www.newtonproject.ox.ac.uk/view/texts/normalized/NATP00197 

1676 
Isaac Newton. epistola prio letter Newton sends to Leibniz giving for ﬁrst time account of the Binomial series expansion 

16821716 
Roger Cotes. Born: July 10, 1682, Burbage, United Kingdom, Died: June 5, 1716, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Apparently Cotes knew of \(e^{i \pi }=1\) before Euler. 

1684 
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Publish ﬁrst paper on diﬀerential calculus. "A new method for maxima and minima, and also tangents, which is impeded neither by fractional nor by irrational quantities, and a remarkable type of calculus for this". 

16851731 
Brook Taylor. Born 18 August 1685, Edmonton, England. Died 29 December 1731 (aged 46) London, England. Taylor’s theorem, Taylor series. 

1687 
Isaac Newton. First edition of Principia Mathematica published. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophi%C3%A6_Naturalis_Principia_Mathematica 

1689 
Jacob Bernoulli. Publication of "Treatise on inﬁnite series and their ﬁnite sums". 

16981746 
Colin Maclaurin. Born February 1698 , Scotland. Died 14 June 1746 (aged 48) Edinburgh, Scotland. EulerMaclaurin formula, Maclaurin series. Integral test for convergence. In 1742, he published a major work consisting of two volumes comprising 763 pages, A Treatise of Fluxions. 

16901764 
Christian Goldbach. Born March 18, 1690 Prussia, Died November 20, 1764 (aged 74) Moscow, Russian Empire. Goldbach’s conjecture: Every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Goldbach https://explainingscience.org/2019/09/01/thegoldbachconjecture/


16921770 
James Stirling. Born May 1692, Scotland. Died 5 December 1770 (Aged 78) Edinburgh, Scotland Stirling numbers, Stirling permutations, Stirling’s approximation. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Stirling_(mathematician) https://hemarino18.wixsite.com/jamesstirling


17001782 
Daniel Bernoulli. Born: Feb. 8, 1700, Groningen, Netherlands Died: March 17, 1782, Basel, Switzerland. Applications of mathematics to mechanics, ﬂuid mechanics, and work in probability and statistics. 

17011761 
Thomas Bayes. Born 1701 London, England. Died 7 April 1761 (aged 59), Kent, England. statistician. Bayes’ theorem. 

17041752 
Gabriel Cramer. Born 31 July 1704 Geneva. Died 4 January 1752 (age 47), France Cramer rule. (1750). Solution to the St. Petersburg Paradox . Treatise on algebraic curves (1750). 

1705 
Jacob (James) Bernoulli. Died in Basel, Switzerland 

17071783 
Leonhard Euler. Born April 15, 1707 in Basel, Switzerland. Many contributions. Graph theory, number theory, series expansion, integration, analysis, complex numbers. Hypergeometric series. 

17131765 
Alexis Clairaut. Born 13 May 1713[1] Paris. Died 17 May 1765 (aged 52) Paris Clairaut’s theorem. gravitational threebody problem 

1713 
Isaac Newton. Second edition of Principia Mathematica published. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophi%C3%A6_Naturalis_Principia_Mathematica 

Nov. 14, 1716 
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Died. Hannover, Germany 

17171783 
Jean le Rond d’Alembert. Born. Nov. 16, 171 Paris, France. First to propose that calculus be based on concept of limit. Analytical Solution to wave equation. 

1726 
Leonhard Euler. Dissertation published (Physical dissertation on sound). 

March 31, 1727 
Isaac Newton. Died. Kensington, London, United Kingdom https://www.westminsterabbey.org/abbeycommemorations/commemorations/sirisaacnewton 

17281777 
Johann Heinrich Lambert. Born 26 August 1728, France. Died 25 September 1777 (aged 49) Berlin, Prussia. Introduced hyperbolic functions into trigonometry. nonEuclidean space. First proof that \(\pi \) is irrational using a generalized continued fraction for the function \(\tan x\). Formula for the relationship between the angles and the area of hyperbolic triangles. Theory of map projections. 

Oct. 1729 
Leonhard Euler. Letter to Christian Goldbach showing ﬁrst proposal to extend factorial to positive numbers which can be noninteger. 

17361813 
JosephLouis Lagrange. Born 25 January 1736, Died 10 April 1813 (aged 77) Paris, France. Lagrange equations. Succeeded Euler as director of mathematics at Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin. Lagrange’s treatise on analytical mechanics. Classical mechanics. Variational calculus. Number theory. 

1746 
d’Alembert discovers the solution to wave equation named after him. 

1748 
Leonhard Euler. Publishes text "Introduction to analysis of inﬁnite". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Introductio_in_analysin_infinitorum 

Jan. 1, 1748 
Johann Bernoulli. Died in Basel, Switzerland. 

17491827 
PierreSimon Laplace. Born: March 23, 1749, BeaumontenAuge, France Died: March 5, 1827, Paris, France. Laplace’s equation, and the Laplace transform. Wrote ﬁvevolume Mécanique Céleste https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PierreSimon_Laplace https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trait%C3%A9_de_m%C3%A9canique_c%C3%A9leste 

17521833 
AdrienMarie Legendre. Born Sep. 18 1752, in Paris, France. French mathematician. Legendre polynomials. Legendre transformation. 

17651822 
Paolo Ruﬃni. Born September 22, 1765 Italy, Died May 10, 1822 (aged 56) Italy. First proof (AbelRuﬃni theorem) that quintic (and higherorder) equations cannot be solved by radicals. Ruﬃni’s rule. group theory. probability. quadrature of the circle. 

17681830 
Joseph Fourier. Born March 21,1768 in Auxerre, France. Most famous for of Fourier series, and Harmonic analysis. Discovery of Greenhouse eﬀect. 

17681822 
JeanRobert Argand. Born July 18, 1768 Geneva, Died August 13, 1822 (aged 54) Paris. Argand diagram in complex analysis, the ﬁrst rigorous proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JeanRobert_Argand https://prabook.com/web/jeanrobert.argand/2202845 

17761831 
Sophie Germain. Born 1 April 1776, France. Died 27 June 1831 (aged 55) Paris, France. Elasticity theory (grand prize Paris Academy of Sciences). Worked on Fermat’s Last Theorem. correspondence with Lagrange, Legendre, and Gauss 

17771855 
Carl Friedrich Gauss. Born in Brunswick, Germany. Born April 20, 1777. Many contributions to Mathematics and Prime number theory. ﬁrst satisfactory proof of the fundamental theorem of algebra. Quadratic reciprocity law. Full systematic treatment of Hypergeometric series. Hypergeometric function. 

17811840 
Siméon Denis Poisson. Born 21 June 1781, France. Died 25 April 1840 (aged 58) memoirs on the theory of electricity and magnetism. Applied mathematics. Poisson PDE named after him. 

Sep. 18, 1783 
Leonhard Euler. Died in Saint Petersburg, Russia 

Oct. 29, 1783 
Jean le Rond d’Alembert. Died. Paris, France 

17841846 
Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Born 22 July 1784 Germany. Died 17 March 1846 (aged 61) Russia. Distance from the sun to another star by the method of parallax. Bessel functions. 

17851836 
ClaudeLouis Navier. Born 10 February 1785, France. Died 21 August 1836 (aged 51) Paris Known for NavierStokes equations. 

17891857 
AugustinLouis Cauchy. Born August 21, 1789 Paris, France. Foundation of analysis, complex number theory. 

17931841 
George Green. Born 14 July 1793, Died 31 May 1841. England. Green function, Green’s theorem. 

18021829 
Niels Henrik Abel. Born 5 August 1802 Norway. Died 6 April 1829 (aged 26) Norway. First complete proof demonstrating the impossibility of solving the general quintic equation in radicals. Elliptic functions. Abelian functions. 

18031855 
Jacques Charles François Sturm. Born 29 September 1803 Geneva. Died 15 December 1855 (aged 52) Paris SturmLiouville form of ODE. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Charles_Fran%C3%A7ois_Sturm 

18041851 
Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi. Born December 10, 1804, Potsdam, Germany, Died Feb. 18, 1851, Berlin, Germany. German mathematician. Elliptic functions, dynamics, diﬀerential equations, determinants, and number theory. 

18051859 
Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet. Born, 13 Feb. 1805, Duren, French Empire. Analytic number theory, formulated conditions for Fourier series convergence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Gustav_Lejeune_Dirichlet 

18051865 
William Rowan Hamilton. Born: August 4, 1805, Dublin, Ireland. Died Sep. 2, 1865, Dublin, Ireland. Irish mathematician. Optics, classical mechanics and algebra, Hamiltonian mechanics. Quaternions. Hamiltonian equations. 

18091882 
Joseph Liouville. Born 24 March 1809, France. Died 8 September 1882 (aged 73) Paris, France number theory, complex analysis, diﬀerential geometry and topology. SturmLiouville form of ODE. 

18091877 
Hermann Grassmann. Born 15 April 1809 Poland. Died 26 September 1877 (aged 68), German Empire. First known appearance of linear algebra and the notion of a vector space. First axiomatic presentation of arithmetic, use of the principle of induction. Grassmann’s color law. Exterior algebra. 

18101893 
Ernst Kummer. Born 29 January 1810 Sorau, Prussia. Died 14 May 1893 (aged 83) Berlin, Germany. Hypergeometric series, Fermat’s last theorem. Kummer extensions of ﬁelds. 

18111832 
Évariste Galois. Born: Oct. 25, 1811, BourglaReine, France Died: May 31, 1832, Paris, France. Galois theory: necessary and suﬃcient condition for a polynomial to be solvable by radicals. 

18151897 
Karl Weierstrass. Born, Oct. 31, 1815. Ennigerloh, Germany. 

1821 
AugustinLouis Cauchy. the Cours danalyse, to accompany his course in analysis at the Ecole Polytechnique https://www.maa.org/press/periodicals/convergence/mathematicaltreasurecauchyscoursdanalyse 

18211895 
Arthur Cayley. Born: August 16, 1821, Richmond, United Kingdom. Died: Died: Jan. 26, 1895, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Algebra. CayleyHamilton theorem, Cayley’s theorem. 

18221901 
Charles Hermite. Born 24 December 1822. Died 14 January 1901 (aged 78) Paris. Famous for Hermite polynomials and Hermite interpolation, spline, quadratic forms, elliptic functions and algebra. 

1822 
Joseph Fourier Publishes "The analytical theory of heat". https://www.amazon.com/AnalyticalTheoryDoverBooksPhysics/dp/0486495310 

1823 
AugustinLouis Cauchy. Published Calcul Inﬁnitésimal 

18261866 
Bernhard Riemann. Born: Sep. 17, 1826, Kingdom of Hanover. Died: July 20, 1866, Verbania, Italy. Formulation of the integral, the Riemann integral, and work on Fourier series. His famous 1859 paper on the primecounting function. Riemann geometry. 

May 16, 1830 
Joseph Fourier Died in Paris, France 

Jan. 10, 1833 
AdrienMarie Legendre. Died in Paris, France 

18311879 
James Clerk Maxwell. Born 13 June 1831 Edinburgh, Scotland. Died 5 November 1879 (aged 48) Cambridge, England. Mathematical physics. Maxwell’s equations. Published "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" in 1865. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Clerk_Maxwell https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Dynamical_Theory_of_the_Electromagnetic_Field 

18421899 
Marius Sophus Lie. Born: December 17, 1842, Nordfjordeid, Norway. Died: Died: Feb. 18, 1899, Oslo, Norway. Norwegian mathematician. Theory of continuous symmetry, study of geometry and diﬀerential equations. diﬀerential topology. 

18431921 
Karl Hermann Amandus Schwarz. Born 25 January 1843 Prussia. Died 30 November 1921 (aged 78) Berlin, Germany. CauchySchwarz inequality. Improved the proof of the Riemann mapping theorem. 

1844 
Joseph Liouville proved the existence of transcendental numbers 

18451918 
Georg Cantor. Born: March 3, 1845, Saint Petersburg, Russia Died: Jan. 6, 1918, Halle (Saale), Germany. Set theory. 

18491917 
Ferdinand Georg Frobenius. Born 26 October 1849 Berlin. Died 3 August 1917 (aged 67) Berlin. Diﬀerential equations (Frobenius series). ﬁrst full proof for the CayleyHamilton theorem. FrobeniusStickelberger formulae 

18491925 
Felix Klein. Born 25 April 1849, Germany. Died 22 June 1925 (aged 76) Germany. Group theory, complex analysis, nonEuclidean geometry. Died: Jan. 6, 1918, Halle (Saale), Germany. Set theory. 

1851 
Joseph Liouville. Publish paper showing for ﬁrst time a transcendental number \(\sum _{k=1}^\infty \frac {1}{10^{k!}}\) http://mathshistory.standrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Liouville.html 

18541912 
Henri Poincare, Born April 29,1854. Died July 17, 1912 

Feb. 23, 1855 
Carl Friedrich Gauss Died in Gottingen, Germany 

18561941 
Émile Picard.Born 24 July 1856 Paris, France. Died 11 December 1941 (aged 85) Paris, France French mathematician. Picard iteration. diﬀerential equations. Picard’s little theorem. algebraic topology. 

18561894 
Thomas Joannes Stieltjes. Born 29 December 1856, Netherlands. Died 31 December 1894 (aged 38) , France. continued fractions. RiemannStieltjes integral. 

May 23, 1857 
AugustinLouis Cauchy Died. Sceaux, France 

May 5, 1859 
Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet. Died (aged 54), Gottingen, Kingdom of Hanover 

18571918 
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov. Born June 6, 1857, Russian Empire. Died November 3, 1918 (aged 61) Ukrainian People’s Republic. stability theory of a dynamical system. 

18591929 
Karl Heun. Born 3 April 1859, Germany; died 10 January 1929, Germany. Heun’s equation, Heun special function, Heun’s method. 

18611947 
Alfred North Whitehead. Born 15 February 1861, England. Died 30 December 1947 (aged 86) Cambridge, Massachusetts, US. mathematical logic. Wrote Principia Mathematica with Bertrand Russell. 

18611935 
Ivar Otto Bendixson. Born August 1, 1861, Stockholm Sweden. Died November 29, 1935 (aged 74) Stockholm Sweden. PoincaréBendixson theorem. “The PoincaréBendixson theorem, which says an integral curve which does not end in a singular point has a limit cycle, was ﬁrst proved by Henri Poincaré but a more rigorous proof with weaker hypotheses was given by Bendixson in 1901” “In 1902, he derived Bendixson’s inequality which puts bounds on the characteristic roots of matrices” 

18621943 
David Hilbert. Born: Jan. 23, 1862, Königsberg. Died: Feb. 14, 1943, Göttingen, Germany. German mathematician. Invariant theory, calculus of variations, commutative algebra, algebraic number theory, Spectral theory of operators and its application to integral equations, mathematical physics. 

18641909 
Hermann Minkowski. Born: June 22, 1864, Aleksotas, Kaunas, Lithuania. Died: Jan. 12, 1909, Göttingen, Germany. German mathematician. Geometry of numbers. Mathematical physics. Theory of relativity. 

18701951 
Abraham Cohen. Born 11 Sep 1870, Died 25 Apr 1951 (aged 80) Professor of Mathematics, Johns Hopkins University. Published "AN INTRODUCTION TO THE LIE THEORY OF ONE PARAMETER GROUPS WITH APPLICATIONS TO THE SOLUTION OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS" and "The Diﬀerential Equation" book. 
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1875 
Karl Weierstrass. Paul duBois Reymond publishes account of Karl Weierstrass pathological function which is continuous at every point but diﬀerentiable nowhere. Karl ﬁrst discovered this function in the 1860’s. If \(a\geq 3\) is an odd integer and if \(0<b<1\) such that \(ab>1+\frac {3 \pi }{2}\) then the function \(f(x)=\sum _{k=0}^{\infty } b^k \cos (\pi a^k x)\) is such. 

18771947 
G. H. Hardy. English mathematician. Born: Feb. 7, 1877, Cranleigh, United Kingdom. Died: December 1, 1947, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Number theory and mathematical analysis 

18791955 
Albert Einstein. Born: March 14, 1879, Ulm, Germany. 

18821935 
Emmy Noether. Born: March 23, 1882, Erlangen, Germany Died: April 14, 1935, Bryn Mawr, PA. Abstract algebra and theoretical physics. 

18841944 
George David Birkhoﬀ. Born March 21, 1884, Michigan. Died November 12, 1944 (aged 60) Cambridge, Massachusetts. American mathematician best. ergodic theorem. Dynamical systems. Geometry. 

18851955 
Hermann Weyl. Born 9 November 1885, Germany. Died 8 December 1955 (aged 70) Zurich, Switzerland. Theoretical physicist. Combining general relativity with the laws of electromagnetism. 

18871920 
Srinivasa Ramanujan. Born: December 22, 1887, Erode, India Died: April 26, 1920, Kumbakonam, India. The Ramanujan prime, the Ramanujan theta function, partition formulae and mock theta function. Prime theory. 

18901961 
Erich Kamke. Born 18 August 1890, German Empire. Died 28 September 1961 (aged 71), Germany. Diﬀerential equations. 

18931945 
Stefan Banach. Born 30 March 1892 Poland, Died 31 August 1945 (aged 53), Ukraine. modern functional analysis, Linear Operators, Banach spaces. 1932 book, Theory of Linear Operations. 

Feb. 19, 1897 
Karl Weierstrass Died, Berlin, Germany 

18981962 
Emil Artin. Born March 3, 1898 Vienna, AustriaHungary, December 20, 1962 (aged 64) Hamburg, West Germany. From wikipedia “He is best known for his work on algebraic number theory, contributing largely to class ﬁeld theory and a new construction of Lfunctions. He also contributed to the pure theories of rings, groups and ﬁelds.” 

19031957 
John von Neumann. Born: December 28, 1903, Budapest, Hungary Died: Feb. 8, 1957, Bethesda, USA. physics and computer science. 

19061978 
Kurt Gödel. Born: April 28, 1906, AustriaHungary. Died: Jan. 14, 1978, Princeton, NJ. Incompleteness theorems. 

19131996 
Paul Erdos. Hungarian mathematician. Born: March 26, 1913, Budapest, Hungary. Died: Sep. 20, 1996, Warsaw, Poland. 

19172010 
Mary L. Boas. Born March 10, 1917 Washington. Died February 17, 2010 Seattle, Washington Most known for her book Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences 

1955 
Albert Einstein. Died: April 18, 1955, Princeton Medical Center, NJ 




